cabled yarn: A yarn formed by twisting two or more plied yarns together.
CAD: Computer Aided Design.
calendering: A finishing process in which fabric is passed through heated rollers to produce special effects such as high luster, glazing, moiré, and embossed surfaces.
California Technical Bulletin 133 (CAL TB 133): A large, open-flame test for upholstered seating developed by the California Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation. The test is required for seating in certain California, Boston, NY/NJ Port Authority, and other occupancies.
The test is intended to qualify upholstered furniture for use in “high-risk” occupancies such as healthcare facilities, penal institutions, daycare facilities, and buildings where free and easy egress is not always possible during a fire evacuation. CAL TB 133 is a test for furniture; it is not a fabric test. The test method consists of exposing the seating area of upholstered furniture to an intense flame from a square-shaped burner for 80 seconds. The testing takes place in a standard room instrumented to record the mass loss of the test object, the temperature at the ceiling
and at the 4-foot level, and smoke opacity at the 4-foot level. Exhaust gases are collected and analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO) generation and to determine both the peak heat release and the total heat release of the burning furniture. Pass/fail criteria apply to each of these measurements. www.bhfti.ca.gov
carding: The process in the manufacturing of spun yarns in which the staple fiber is aligned and formed into a continuous strand called “sliver.” The production of sliver is the first step in the textile operation that brings staple fiber into a form that can be drawn and then twisted into spun yarn.
chenille: A yarn of any fiber made by locking short cut fibers onto a core yarn to create a caterpillar-like pile. Usually used as a filling yarn in fabric that is also referred to as chenille.
chip: The solid form of a polymer before being melted or dissolved for extrusion.
colorfastness: The ability of a material to resist color change or color transfer when exposed to various physical and environmental conditions during processing, storage, or use. Although dozens of tests evaluate aspects of colorfastness, panel and upholstery fabrics are most com-
monly tested for Colorfastness to Light (AATCC 16) and Colorfastness to Crocking (AATCC 8).
colorways: The number of colors in a color line for any given fabric pattern. Also see sku.
COM: See customer’s own material.
combing: The yarn manufacturing process that follows carding, further refining, removing short fibers and waste, and aligning the fibers in preparation for spinning.
commercial match: The commonly used term to describe acceptable color variation from a color standard.
construction: How a particular pattern is woven and which components are used. For example, jacquard, plain weave, basket weave, dobby.
cotton: A highly absorbent natural vegetable fiber composed of almost pure cellulose from the cotton plant. Takes color well, especially in mercerized form, which swells the fiber and increases its luster.
creel: A rack that holds spools and bobbins of yarn.
crepe: A fabric with a pebbled texture created either by a crepe weave construction or by hard-twist filling yarns, chemical treatment, or embossing.
crocking: Transference of color from a yarn or fabric onto another fabric or surface by rubbing. Fabrics or yarns may be tested for colorfastness to crocking by AATCC Test Method 8 for woven fabrics or AATCC Test Method 116 for printed fabrics. These tests consist of rubbing a dry piece
and a wet piece of white cotton fabric against the test specimen for 10 double strokes under prescribed loading conditions using a Crockmeter. The white fabric is then examined for color transfer and evaluated against one of two scales: the AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale (preferred), or the AATCC Gray Scale for Staining. On both scales, Grade 5 is equivalent to no color transfer, while Grade 1 represents a very
severe degree of color transfer.
cross-dyeing: A method of dyeing yarn or fabric constructed from two or more fiber types by using dyes with different affinities for the different fibers.
customer’s own material (COM): A customer’s choice of any material other than the standard fabric offered by the furniture manufacturer.
cut yardage: Fabric in less than full-bolt or roll increments (average 50 yards). Cut yardage orders are determined by the yardage required for the specific project.